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Persian word for ‘dust’, a colour used for service dress uniforms in British India from the 1840s. This innovation spread to Britain itself and to other countries as camouflage grew important due to the increasing accuracy of firearms. Canadian troops first wore khaki uniforms in the South African War and was then introduced in Canada in 1903, but most volunteer units kept wearing their scarlet, green or blue tunics or serge frocks until the First World War. At that point, khaki became the only colour issued for uniforms until the CF Green uniforms issued in 1968.


Traditional skirt-like garment worn by Scottish Highlanders made of dyed wool woven into various distinctive tartans. The British 78th (Fraser’s) Highlanders was the first kilted regiment to serve in Canada from 1757 to 1763. Many other British Highland regiments served in Canada from the late 18th century but the first Canadian Volunteer Militia battalion to wear kilts was Montréal’s 5th Royal Scots of Canada in the 1870s. Other regiments followed suit. In the First World War, many battalions in the Canadian Expeditionary Force were raised as Highlanders and wore kilts at the front. During the Second World War, the tartans of the regiments were as follows:
  • Black Watch of Canada - Black Watch
  • Highland L.I. of Canada - Mackenzie
  • Lanark and Renfrew - Black Watch
  • Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry - Macdonell of Glengarry
  • Pictou Highlanders - Mackenzie
  • North Nova Scotia - Murray of Atholl
  • Cape Breton Highlanders - Black Watch
  • Prince Edward Island Highlanders - Black Watch
  • Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa - Cameron of Erracht
  • Essex Scottish - MacGregor
  • 48th Highlanders - Davidson
  • Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders - Black Watch
  • Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders - Cameron of Erracht
  • Calgary Highlanders - Black Watch
  • Seaforth Highlanders - Mackenzie
  • Canadian Scottish - Hunting Stuart
  • Toronto Scottish - Elcho
  • Scots Fusiliers - Black Watch
  • Lorne Scots - Campbell of Argyll
Pipers for the Black Watch and the Lanark and Renfrew had Royal Stuart tartan kilts, the Scots Fusiliers had No. 11 Erskeene. The Highland L.I., the Scots Fusiliers and the Lorne Scots had trews except for their pipers, who had kilts.